CORNEAL ULCER. LEARN HOW TO IDENTIFY THE 6 MOST COMMON TYPES IN DOGS AND CATS.

Superficial corneal ulcer

Discover how to identify the 6 most common types of corneal ulcer in dogs and cats.

1. Superficial corneal ulcer

  • Affects only the epithelial layer.
  • Well-defined edges
  • Anywhere on the cornea
  • When it extends below the third eyelid, the possibility of a foreign body must be eliminated.
  • Medical treatment
  • Can affect dogs and cats of any breed and age.
Superficial corneal ulcer

2.Detached edge ulcer (SCCED)

  • Always superficial
  • Not well defined edges. Fluorescein is seen extending below the edge.
  • May be localized anywhere on the cornea
  • Can be It is the only type of ulcer in which debridement and/or keratotomy is appropriate.
  • The current recommended treatment is diamond drilling.
  • Usually affects middle-aged dogs
Detached-edge corneal ulcer

3.Stromal corneal ulcer

  • May involve anterior, middle or deep stroma.
  • A defect is usually observed macroscopically
  • Edges usually well defined. Fluorescein is distributed beyond the edge after a few minutes of its application due to its diffusion between the collagen lamellae.
  • May be localized anywhere on the cornea
  • Medical treatment but may require surgery depending on the depth.
  • It is always advisable to take a sample for cytology and culture
  • Can affect dogs and cats of any age
stromal corneal ulcer

4. Descemetocele

  • Loss of stroma down to Descemet's membrane.
  • A gelatinous appearance and clarity in the center is observed
  • Normally well-defined edges
  • Can be located anywhere on the cornea-> in brachiocephalic breeds it is usually centrally located
  • Need surgical treatment
  • FRAGILE eye
  • It is always advisable to take a sample for cytology and culture when the animal is anesthetized prior to repair surgery.
  • Can affect dogs and cats of any age
descemetocele

5. Perforated corneal ulcers

  • There is loss of all layers of the cornea.
  • A defect is observed macroscopically but not so clearly since fibrin or iris prolapse may be present.
  • Anterior chamber loss may be seen in some cases.
  • Perform Seidel test*.
  • Borders are usually not well defined
  • Can be located anywhere on the cornea-> in brachiocephalic breeds it is usually centrally located
  • Need surgical treatment
  • It is always advisable to take a sample for cytology and culture when the animal is anesthetized prior to repair surgery.
  • Can affect dogs and cats of any age
perforated ulcer

6. Corneal melting ulcer (by collagenase)

  • Can affect different depths
  • A gelatinous appearance of the cornea is observed.
  • Edges are not well defined
  • Can affect any part of the cornea
  • It is an EMERGENCY
  • Initially intensive medical treatment but may require surgery
  • Cross-linking
  • It is always advisable to take a sample for cytology and culture
  • Can affect dogs and cats of any age
melting

And if you want to know more, here are our three clinical snapshots by Elena Fenollosa Romero